# GATE EC Syllabus

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GATE Electronics and Communication Engineering (ECE) is one of the most popular streams among engineering students. The GATE ECE exam tests the candidates’ understanding of the concepts of communication engineering, digital circuits, signal processing, and electronic devices, among others.

The GATE ECE exam syllabus covers topics such as electromagnetic fields, electronic devices, signals and systems, analog circuits, digital circuits, control systems, communications, and power electronics. Among these, signals and systems, electronic devices, and communication are the most important subjects in the GATE ECE exam.

## GATE General Aptitude Syllabus for EC Engineering

Quantitative Aptitude | Data interpretation: data graphs (bar graphs, pie charts, and other graphs representing the data), 2- and 3-dimensional plots, maps, and tables Numerical computation and estimation: ratios, percentages, powers, exponents, and logarithms, permutations, and combinations, and series Mensuration and geometry Elementary statistics and probability. |
---|---|

Analytical Aptitude | Logic: deduction and induction, Analogy, Numerical relations, and reasoning |

Verbal Aptitude | Basic English grammar: tenses, articles, adjectives, prepositions, conjunctions, verb-noun agreement, and other parts of speech Basic vocabulary: words, idioms, and phrases in context Reading and comprehension Narrative sequencing |

Spatial Aptitude | Transformation of shapes: translation, rotation, scaling, mirroring, assembling, and grouping Paper folding, cutting, and patterns in 2 and 3 dimensions |

## GATE Electronics and Communication Engineering Syllabus

- Engineering Mathematics
- Networks, Signals, and Systems
- Electronic Devices
- Analog Circuits
- Digital Circuits
- Control Systems
- Communications
- Electromagnetics

**Linear Algebra**

Matrix algebra, systems of linear equations, eigenvalues, and eigenvectors.

**Calculus**

Functions of a single variable, limit, continuity and differentiability, mean value theorems, indeterminate forms; evaluation of definite and improper integrals; double and triple integrals; partial derivatives, total derivative, Taylor series (in one and two variables), maxima and minima, Fourier series; gradient, divergence and curl, vector identities, directional derivatives, line, surface and volume integrals, applications of Gauss, Stokes and Green’s theorems.

**Differential equations**

First-order equations (linear and nonlinear); higher-order linear differential equations with constant coefficients; Euler-Cauchy equation; initial and boundary value problems; Laplace transforms; solutions of heat, wave, and Laplace’s equations.

**Complex variables**

Analytic functions; Cauchy-Riemann equations; Cauchy’s integral theorem and integral formula; Taylor and Laurent series.

**Probability and Statistics**

Definitions of probability, sampling theorems, conditional probability; mean, median, mode, and standard deviation; random variables, binomial, Poisson, and normal

distributions.

**Circuit Analysis**

Node and mesh analysis, superposition, Thevenin’s theorem, Norton’s theorem, reciprocity. Sinusoidal steady state analysis: phasors, complex power, maximum power transfer. Time and frequency domain analysis of linear circuits: RL, RC, and RLC circuits, Solution of network equations using Laplace transform.

Linear 2-port network parameters, wye-delta transformation.

**Continuous-time Signals**

Fourier series and Fourier transform, sampling theorem and applications.

**Discrete-time Signals**

DTFT, DFT, z-transform, discrete-time processing of continuous-time signals.

**LTI systems**

Definition and properties, causality, stability, impulse response, convolution, poles and zeros, frequency response, group delay, phase delay.

Energy bands in intrinsic and extrinsic semiconductors, equilibrium carrier concentration, direct and indirect band-gap semiconductors.

**Carrier Transport**

diffusion current, drift current, mobility and resistivity, generation, and recombination of carriers, Poisson, and continuity equations. P-N junction, Zener diode, BJT, MOS capacitor, MOSFET, LED, photodiode, and solar cell.

**Diode Circuits**

clipping, clamping, and rectifiers.

**BJT and MOSFET Amplifiers**

Biasing, ac coupling, small signal analysis, frequency response. Current mirrors and differential amplifiers.

**Op-amp Circuits**

Amplifiers, summers, differentiators, integrators, active filters, Schmitt triggers, and oscillators.

**Number Representations**

binary, integer, and floating-point- numbers. Combinatorial circuits, Boolean algebra, minimization of functions using Boolean identities and Karnaugh map, logic gates and their static CMOS implementations, arithmetic circuits, code converters, multiplexers, and decoders.

**Sequential Circuits**

latches and flip-flops, counters, shift registers, finite state machines, propagation delay, setup and hold time, critical path delay.

**Data Converters**

Sample and hold circuits, ADCs, and DACs.

**Semiconductor Memories**

ROM, SRAM, DRAM.

**Computer Organization**

Machine instructions and addressing modes, ALU, data path, and control unit, instruction pipelining.

**Basic control system components**

Feedback principle; Transfer function; Block diagram representation; Signal flow graph; Transient and steady-state analysis of LTI systems; Frequency response; Routh-Hurwitz and Nyquist stability criteria; Bode and root-locus plots; Lag, lead and lag lead compensation; State variable model and solution of state equation of LTI systems.

**Random Processes**

autocorrelation and power spectral density, properties of white noise, filtering of random signals through LTI systems.

**Analog Communications**

amplitude modulation and demodulation, angle modulation and demodulation, spectra of AM and FM, superheterodyne receivers.

**Information Theory**

entropy, mutual information, and channel capacity theorem.

**Digital Communications**

PCM, DPCM, digital modulation schemes (ASK, PSK, FSK, QAM), bandwidth, inter-symbol interference, MAP, ML detection, matched filter receiver, SNR, and BER.

Fundamentals of error correction, Hamming codes, CRC.

**Maxwell’s Equations**

differential and integral forms and their interpretation, boundary conditions, wave equation, Poynting vector.

**Plane Waves and Properties**

reflection and refraction, polarization, phase and group velocity, propagation through various media, skin depth.

**Transmission Lines**

equations, characteristic impedance, impedance matching, impedance transformation, S-parameters, Smith chart.

Rectangular and circular waveguides, light propagation in optical fibers, dipole, and monopole antennas, and linear antenna arrays.

## GATE Electronics and Communication Engineering Subject Wise Weightage

In GATE Electronics & Communication Paper, most subjects carry almost the same weight in the exam. So, it is important for you to know the topics where questions have been asked regularly in the GATE previous year’s question papers. Based on the study of previous GATE papers, the GATE syllabus for electronics and communication engineering with detailed analysis is listed below.

The subject-wise weightage of the GATE ECE exam varies every year, but signals and systems, electronic devices, and communication usually carry a higher weightage than the other subjects. Candidates who wish to appear for the GATE ECE exam must have a strong foundation in these subjects and should be well-versed in the related concepts and theories.

Subject | 2012 | 2013 | 2014 | 2015 | 2016 | 2017 | 2018 | 2019 | 2020 | 2021 | 2022 | 2023 |
---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|

General Aptitude |
15 |
15 |
15 |
15 |
15 |
15 |
15 |
15 |
15 |
15 |
15 |
15 |

Engg. Maths |
12 |
12 |
13 |
9 |
11 |
12 |
14 |
11 |
11 |
11 |
12 |
13 |

Signals & Systems |
7 |
10 |
10 |
10 |
13 |
11 |
9 |
8 |
8 |
8 |
7 |
12 |

Digital & MP |
5 |
6 |
7 |
7 |
6 |
10 |
11 |
5 |
9 |
9 |
10 |
8 |

Control Systems |
9 |
7 |
8 |
7 |
9 |
9 |
7 |
10 |
8 |
6 |
8 |
7 |

EMT |
12 |
6 |
8 |
8 |
11 |
8 |
8 |
9 |
11 |
10 |
7 |
11 |

Comm Systems |
10 |
7 |
10 |
9 |
10 |
8 |
9 |
12 |
8 |
16 |
10 |
11 |

Analog Electronics |
7 |
7 |
9 |
7 |
7 |
8 |
7 |
5 |
13 |
9 |
10 |
10 |

EDC & VLSI |
11 |
15 |
10 |
18 |
11 |
13 |
13 |
20 |
10 |
6 |
13 |
7 |

Network Theory |
12 |
15 |
10 |
10 |
7 |
6 |
7 |
5 |
7 |
10 |
8 |
6 |